Food Handling & Hygiene

COCKROACHES

There are more than 3,500 species of cockroaches in the world. The most common varieties found in our stores are the American, Oriental and German. ( See above ). Because these insects eat a wide range of foods, including rotting garbage, it is believed that they can spread a number of diseases to humans. Recent studies have indicated that cockroaches can also cause allergies.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A COCKROACH

  • Oval shaped body

  • Six legs

  • Long antennae

  • Flat low body

  • Fast moving

  • Winged

DISEASES THAT THEY CARRY

It is believed that a cockroach may be a reservoir for a range of bacteria, including Salmonella, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Similar to the housefly the cockroach will eat anything, ranging from spilled foods to faecal matter. Ingested bacteria can survive in the digestive system for months or even years. It is thought that the disease is transmitted to humans when they eat cockroach droppings contaminated on food.

LIFE CYCLE OF A COCKROACH

A female cockroach lays between 10 and 40 eggs at a time. On average, the female will lay around 30 batches of eggs in her lifetime. Cockroaches will live up twelve months depending on conditions. The insect are cold blooded are prefer warm humid conditions.

COMMON HIDING SPOTS

  • Cracks in walls

  • Confined spaces such as ovens, provers under cardboard stacks

  • Items that are left undisturbed

  • Drains and grease traps

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO TREAT THE PROBLEM

  • Report the problem to your store manager.

  • Write the pest sighting in the pest sighting form located in the manager's office.

  • Throughly clean the department as per the clean stores policy.

  • Pay special attention to preparation areas.

  • Clean up spills promptly.

  • Make sure that there are no easy sources of water. Cockroaches need a steady supply of water to survive.

  • Store food in appropriate sealed containers.

  • Ensure that holes and cracks in wall skirting and inside cupboard are reported to maintenance for repair and filling.

  • Don't stack cardboard magazine newspapers in department.

PROFESSIONAL PEST TREATMENT

A qualified pest controller can determine the type, source and extent of the infestation, then registered pesticides will be used to control the problem. Good hygiene practices should reduce further infestations.

WHERE TO GET HELP

  • Store Manager
  • Flick Pest Control 13 14 40
  • Food Handling and Hygiene Department

SOME EXAMPLES OF EQUIPMENT USED

 

PASTE GUN
CANNISTER SPRAYERS

 


FRUIT FLIES - (Drosophila SPP)

Common Fruit Fly

This common name of small fruit fly comes from their small size and fondness for fruits as egg laying and development sites. The name of vinegar fly comes from the fact they develop in the briny or vinegar like liquids at the top of imperfectly sealed canned fruits and vegetables.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE FRUIT FLY

Adults (3-4mm) long, including the wings. A dull colour, tan to brownish yellow or brownish blacks, eyes usually bright red.

Adult females lay their eggs (average about 500) near the surface of fermenting fruits and vegetables or near the cover crack of imperfectly sealed containers of such materials. The eggs hatch in about 30 hours. The larvae develop in the briny or vinegar like liquids of the fermenting materials where they feed near the surface and primarily on the yeast, for about 5-6 days.

Internal damage to an Orange from Fruit Flies

Prior to pupation, the larvae crawl to drier areas of the food or elsewhere. The brown, seed like sheath containing the pupa (the puparium) is formed from the last larval skin. The newly emerged adults mate in about 2 days. The life cycle (adult to adult) may be completed in 8 - 10 days at 29 degrees C. Their reproductive potential is enormous.

LIFE CYCLE AND HABITS

Small fruit flies are attracted primarily to fresh fruits and vegetables and those fermenting because of yeast. Materials lose their attractiveness when they begun to decay because of bacteria and fungi. Materials commonly infested include bananas, grapes, peaches, pineapples, tomatoes, mustard pickles, potatoes, etc and fermenting liquids such as beer, cider, vinegar and wine, some species are attracted to human and animal excrement. The larvae develop primarily in liquids and near the surface but seek drier areas for pupation. Newly emerged adults are attracted to lights.

Because of their short life cycle of 8 - 10 days, they can exploit many temporarily available developmental sites such as sour mop and broom heads, fruit under a table or cabinet, fruit left out in a bowl, etc. Sink water and mop water full of food particles can accumulate on surfaces and/or in crevices and ferment, providing ideal fly breeding conditions. Adults tend to hover in small circles. Because of their small size, many species are able to penetrate ordinary screens.

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP

The key to small fruit fly control is sanitation. Elimination of larval food and developmental sites is mandatory. The presence of adult flies usually means that larvae are developing in some nearby fermenting material. Below are common areas that fruit fly have been located.

  • Report the problem to your store manager
  • Write the pest sighting in the pest sighting form located in the manager's office.
  • Floor drains Deli, fresh produce, dairy and bakery - require a through clean and scrub to remove breeding site materials . A daily solution of C3 Degreaser and hot water will assist in fermented scum removal.
  • Removal of fruit and vegetable scraps from the floors daily.
  • Waste bins to be cleaned effectively.
  • Adherence to the Clean Stores Policy for your respective department.
  • Proper stock rotation.
  • Removal of damaged fruits from display.

PROFESSIONAL PEST TREATMENT

A qualified pest controller can determine the type, source and extent of the infestation, then registered pesticides will be used to control the problem. Good hygiene practices should reduce further infestations.

WHERE TO GET HELP

  • Store manager

  • See pest book for contact details

  • Food handling and hygiene department


INDIAN MEAL MOTH

Indian Meal Moths are probably the most common pantry pests found in households and pantries. Unfortunately the same problem can exist in your store and get to a stage beyond control.

Adults of Indian Meal Moth have a wingspan of about 13 - 17mm, when at rest the wings are folded together tightly by the body. The wings are a blend of two colours; the front half of the wings is a pale - grey tan, bottom half of the wings are a rust bronze colour.

LIFE CYCLE OF THE INDIAN MEAL MOTH (EGG - LARVA- PUPA- ADULT)

Adult moths usually emerge, mate, and lay eggs at night. Females lay between 40 to 400 eggs in 18 days, or an adjacent to food material, either singly or in-groups depending on several factors. Eggs may also be placed directly on the exterior of packaging material.

Eggs start hatching with 4 - 8 days, usually beginning in April, even with generations overlapping. The 5mm larva soon begins searching for food. Those emerging on the outside of a container are often able to penetrate containers that appear well sealed. As the developing larvae move about, they spin a continuous strand of thin webbing. Over time, this webbing extends throughout the infested material. In a heavy infestation the webbing becomes dense enough to be easily visible.

Larvae mature in 21 to 70 days, depending on food, temperature and daylength. Mature larvae usually leave their food supply and wander about looking for a place to pupate. Larvae seen on ceilings and counters, etc are often the first indication of a problem. In heavy infestations, pupation may occur far from the original food source.

The life cycle (egg to adult) can take as few as 27 days or as long as 305 days. There are generally four to six generations a year, but the number can vary from one to eight (seven to eight under favorable temperature conditions). During winter months, larvae will often enter diapause (a form of hibernation) only to emerge as adults in the spring.

INTERESTING FACTS

  • Moths are nocturnal and prefer to fly at night

  • If disturbed during the day they fly in a zigzag pattern

  • They rest in dark places during the day

  • The larvae will crawl great distances for food

HABITAT AND FOOD SOURCES

Caterpillars have chewing mouthparts. Adults have siphoning mouths. Caterpillars (larvae) feed in flour (including whole wheat and meal). shelled corn and other broken stored grains, dried fruit, seeds, crackers, biscuits, nuts, powdered milk, chocolate, candy, red peppers, and dog food. Caterpillars produce a loose silken mat on top surface or infested food material.

Commonly found in:-

  • Bakery department near the bread slicer and flour storage.

  • Pet food sections in particular bird seeds, dog foods, cat foods.

  • Health food section around flour and health bars containing nuts.

  • Flour and cereal aisles.

  • Confectionary areas.

  • Fresh produce nut display.

HOW TO IDENTIFY MEAL MOTH

  • Grey coloured moths flying around when filling grocery shelves in particular dog food, flour and health food sections.

  • Dirty or lightly coloured larvae crawling over boxes or in food.

  • Customer complaints, maggots in products.

  • Web like material spread over food.

LARVAE IN PRODUCT

EXAMPLES OF WEB MATERIAL SPREAD OVER PRODUCT

WHAT CAN YOU DO TO HELP

  • Report the problem to your store manager

  • Write the pest sighting in the pest sighting form located in the manager's office

  • Thoroughly clean the department as per the Clean Stores Policy

  • Pay special attention to Pet food and Health food and bakery areas

  • Clean up spills promptly

  • Store food in appropriate sealed containers

  • Do not disturb pest company materials such as moth traps

PROFESSIONAL PEST TREATMENT

A qualified pest controller can determine the type, source and extent of the infestation, then registered pesticides will be used to control the problem. Good hygiene practices and stock rotation should reduce further infestations.

Some examples of equipment that will be used in your store when you have a problem.

MONITORING STATION TRAP

INDIAN MEAL MOTH

PHEROMONE BAITS

 

WHERE TO GET HELP

  • Store manager

  • See pest book for contact details

  • Food handling and hygiene department


RODENTS - MICE (MUS MUSCULUS)

CHARACTERISTICS OF A MOUSE

The house mouse is small and has rather large ears, a pointed snout and a tail as long as its body. House mouse found in stores are generally darkish grey in colour with lighter grey on the belly, while those living outdoors tend to be a more sandy or yellow colour hence the reference Field Mouse.

Mice tend to live for a year and have 6 -10 litters per year (each with 5 -6 young). The young mice can reproduce within 6 weeks.

INTERESTING FACTS

  • Mice can fit through a hole the size of your little finger.

  • They can jump 5 feet from floor level.

  • The can walk up walls, glass pipes just about anything.

  • They chew all materials to wear down their teeth.

  • Mice will move where required to get food.

  • Mice do not need water as they obtain fluids from the foods.

  • Mice cannot see very well but have a strong sense of smell.

  • If you see a mouse in the daytime, this indicates overcrowding and the store has a serious problem.

PREFERRED HABITAT

The house mouse can live both indoors and outdoors and will enter building when climate or environmental conditions change. Examples of these are winter and or major earth works. Being such small animals their access is easier than say a rat. A hole the size of your little finger is large enough for a mouse to gain access through.

They typically live in wall voids, cupboards roof voids, stored foods. We have found them living in store fixture legs, repack pallets, egg pallets, behind safes, in dead stock area, gondola walls, fixtures, product withdrawal stock, generally any thing that is not moved regularly.

HOW TO IDENTIFY MICE ACTIVITY

  • Mice droppings are good signs of activity, when they are shiny and dark indicates they are fresh, when dull and hard they are 2 - 3 days old.

  • Shredded paper built into a mound represents nesting. Found in the centre of pallets, boxes and on top of grocery gondola.

  • Broken or damaged stock under grocery fixtures indicates gnawing of food. This must be investigated immediately.

  • Runways sometimes called rub marks, are markings on surfaces from greasy rodent fur. They look like grease stains. They can be vertical or horizontal. Dust on the rub marks indicates no use for some time.

  • Odour, an abundant quantity of mice will give a strong foul smell.

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP

  • Report the problem to your store or department manager.

  • Write the pest sighting in the pest sighting form located in the managers office.

  • Throughly clean the department as per the clean stores policy. It is essential to keep a high standard of hygiene in all areas. Dump room stockroom areas should not be excluded, as this is the first place the problem generally starts.

  • Rotate your pallets daily, mice do not like movement.

  • Process all repack pallets ensuring that lids are not removed on the selling floor. If a mouse is in the box it will run out upon opening or if disturbed. This will lead to an infestation on the grocery selling floor.

  • Leave a space at the rear of the pallets close to the wall. A milk crate positioned behind will prevent the baits or glue boards being destroyed. Mice will run behind the pallet and get caught.

  • Review pest monitoring sheet in the flick pest book, relocate high risk foods stuffs (chips, biscuits, chocolate, eggs etc) from areas which have high activity (denoted by ++) replace with bottle soft drinks or can food or food with no nutritional value.

  • Watch for major development around the external area of the stores. Major earthquakes disturb the burrows of mice who leave and look for new shelter.

  • Store food in appropriate sealed containers.

  • Ensure that holes and cracks in walls, roofs and gaps under doors are reported to maintenance for immediate repair.

PROFESSIONAL PEST TREATMENT

A qualified pest controller can determine the type, source and extent of the infestation, and then registered pesticides will be used to control the problem. Good hygiene practices should reduce further infestations. Equipment used in stores must not be damaged without this protection you have no defence.

Some examples of equipment that will be used in your store when you have a problem,

SMALL GLUE BOARD

LOCKABLE BAIT STATION

 

WHERE TO GET HELP

  • Store / department manager

  • See Pest book for contact details

  • Food handling and hygiene department


RODENTS - RATS (Norway and Roof Rat)

CHARACTERISTICS OF A ROOF RAT

The roof rat is a long and slender weighing about 300g. It has large ears and eyes and a pointed nose. The tail is longer than the head plus body. Roof Rats are excellent climbers found in roofs of houses, on trees, vines, shrubs and dense vegetation. They prefer fresh fruits, vegetables, oats, sugar, vegetable fat to meats. The Roof Rat has a daily food intake of about 20g.

Roof Rats breed throughout the year, with two peaks of production - in February and March and again in May and June. The period of least activity is in July and August. The gestation period is approx 21 days, and the number of young per littler averages almost seven. The young rats at birth are naked, blind, and nearly helpless. They mature rather rapidly, are weaned when about 3 weeks old, and are able to reproduce when approx 3 months old. Young females with a head and body length of 125mm were sexually mature. Like the Norway rat, the roof rat is destructive to property and foodstuffs. Also, it plays an important part in the transmission of such human diseases as endemic typhus, rat bite fever, and bubonic plague.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A NORWAY RAT

The Norway Rat has a heavy thick body weighing about 500g. It has small ears and eyes with a blunt nose. The tail is shorter than head plus body and pale below. The Norway rat is a poor climber but digs burrows. Usually found under fridges, furniture, between walls, under slabs, garbage cans and in crawl spaces. They prefer human and animal stock foods, fresh meat, fresh fish to fruits and vegetables. The Norway Rat has a daily food intake of about 30g.

Norway rats are social, many burrows may be in the same area. These rats mature in 2 - 5 months and live as an adult for 6 - 12 mths, longer in captivity. Pregnancy lasts 3 weeks. Newborns get hair after 1 week, open their eyes in 2 weeks, and are weened at 3 - 4 weeks. A female has 3 - 6 litters per year, 7 - 8 young per litter, with an average of 20 young weaned per year.

INTERESTING FACTS

  • Rats can fit through a hole the size of your thumb.

  • They can run, climb, jump and swim.

  • They can jump 5 feet from floor level.

  • They can walk up walls, glass, pipes just about anything.

  • They chew all materials to wear down their teeth. They have been known to chew through wood, glass, new concrete etc.

  • They have keen hearing, smell, taste, and touch, with their long whiskers, but poor vision, and are also colour blind.

  • If you see a rat in the daytime, this indicates overcrowding and the store has a serious problem.

  • They are nocturnal, and explore a lot, but they are cautious and shy away from newly introduced objects.

  • Rats explore their territory of 100 to 300 feet daily. Rats can survive a fall from up to 25 feet onto a hard surface.

PREFERRED HABITAT

The Rat mouse can live both indoors and outdoors and will enter building when climate or environmental conditions change. Examples of these are winter. Being proficient climber they can access buildings very easy.

They typically live in wall voids, cupboards roof voids, stored foods. We have found them living in store fixtures, repack pallets, egg pallets, behind safes, in dead stock area, gondola wells, fixtures, product withdrawal stock, generally anything that is not moved regularly.

HOW TO IDENTIFY RAT ACTIVITY

  • Rat droppings are good signs of activity, when they are shiny and dark indicates they are fresh, when dull and hard they are 2 - 3 days old.

  • Shredded paper built into a mound represents nesting. Found in the centre of pallets, boxes and on top of grocery gondola.

  • Broken and damaged stock under grocery fixtures indicates gnawing of food. This much be investigated immediately.

  • Runways sometimes called rub marks, are markings on surfaces from greasy rodent fur. They look like grease stains. They can be vertical or horizontal. Dust on the rub marks indicates no use for some time.

  • Odour, an abundant quantity of rats will give a strong foul smell.

SOME EXAMPLES OF RAT ACTIVITY

RAT DROPPINGS AND GNAWING

RUBMARKS ON WALLS

 

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP

  • Report the problem to your store or department manager.

  • Write the pest sighting in the pest sighting form located in the managers office.

  • Throughly clean the department as per the clean stores policy. It is essential to keep a high standard of hygiene in all areas. Dump room stockroom areas should not be excluded, as this is the first place the problem generally starts.

  • Rotate your pallets daily, mice do not like movement.

  • Process all repack pallets ensuring that lids are not removed on the selling floor. If a mouse is in the box it will run out upon opening or if disturbed. This will lead to an infestation on the grocery selling floor.

  • Leave a space at the rear of the pallets close to the wall. A milk crate positioned behind will prevent the baits or glue boards being destroyed. Mice will run behind the pallet and get caught.

  • Review pest monitoring sheet in the flick pest book, relocate high risk foods stuffs (chips, biscuits, chocolate, eggs etc) from areas which have high activity (denoted by ++) replace with bottle soft drinks or can food or food with no nutritional value.

  • Watch for major development around the external area of the stores. Major earthquakes disturb the burrows of mice who leave and look for new shelter.

  • Store food in appropriate sealed containers.

  • Ensure that holes and cracks in walls, roofs and gaps under doors are reported to maintenance for immediate repair.

PROFESSIONAL PEST TREATMENT

A qualified pest controller can determine the type, source and extent of the infestation, and then registered pesticides will be used to control the problem. Good hygiene practices should reduce further infestations. Equipment used in stores must not be damaged without this protection you have no defence.

Some examples of equipment that will be used in your store when you have a problem,

LOCKABLE BAIT STATION

SMALL GLUE BOARD

LARGE GLUE BOARDS

SNAP TRAPS

WHERE TO GET HELP

  • Store / department manager

  • See Pest book for contact details

  • Food handling and hygiene department


STORED PRODUCT PESTS - WEEVILS

Both granary and rice weevils, often known as "snout weevils" penetrate and feed on the internal portions of whole grains during the larval (immature) stage, making early detection of infestations difficult. They are usually found in grain storage facilities of processing plants, infesting wheat, oats, rye, barley, rice, and corn. Although not often found in the home, sometimes they infest table beans, acorns, chestnuts, birdseed, sunflower seeds, and ornamental corn. They are rarely found in macaroni and spaghetti. Granary and rice weevils do not bite or sting humans or pets, spread disease, or feed on or damage the house or furniture.

IDENTIFICATION OF A STORE PRODUCT PEST

Both weevils have chewing mouthparts at the end of their snouts or prolonged heads, and are about 1/8 to 3/16 inch long, depending on the size of the grain kernel. In small grains, weevils are small in size. The adult granary weevil is a shiny reddish brown, whereas the adult rice weevil is a dull reddish brown with four light spots on the wing covers. These light spots are lacking on the granary weevil. Also, the granary weevil cannot fly, whereas the rice weevil can fly. Both weevils in the larval stage are legless, humpbacked, white to creamy white, with a small, tan head. Weevils in the pupa stage have snouts like the adults.

LIFE CYCLE OF THE WEEVIL

The egg, larva, and pupa stages of both weevils occur in the grain kernels and are rarely seen. Feeding is done within the grain kernel, and adults cut exit holes to emerge. Females drill a tiny hole in the grain kernel, deposit an egg in the cavity, and then plug the hole with a gelatinous secretion. The egg hatches into a cavity, and then plug the hole with a gelatinous secretion. The egg hatches into a young larva, which bores toward the centre of the kernel, feeds, grows, and pupates there. New adults bore emergence holes from the inside, then leave to mate and begin a new generation.

Female granary weevils lay from 36 to 254 eggs. Larvae mature in 18 days and the pupa in 6 days. The life cycle is about 30 to 40 days during the summer, and 123 to 148 days during the winter, depending on temperature. Female rice weevils lay between 300 to 400 eggs, with the life cycle requiring about 32 days for completion.

INTERESTING FACTS

  • Rice weevil adults live 3 - 6 mths

  • Both granary and rice weevils fake death by drawing up their legs close to the body, falling, and remaining silent when disturbed

  • Adult granary weevils can live up to 7 - 8 mths

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP

The simplest and most effective measure is to locate the source of infestation and quickly get rid of it. Use a flashlight or other light source to examine all food storage areas and food products carefully. Dispose of heavily infested foods in wrapped, heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers for garbage removal. If you detect an infestation early, disposal alone may solve the problem.

PROFESSIONAL PEST TREATMENT

A qualified pest controller can determine the type, source and extent of the infestation, and then registered pesticides will be used to control the problem.

WHERE TO GET HELP

  • Store manager

  • See pest book for contact details

  • Food handling and hygiene department

 

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